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名师版托福作文范文

来源: 英语作文网 时间: 2011-07-07 阅读:

  范文001  2008年10月18日星期六 北京

  Is it good for teenager students, roughly between 11 and 18 years old, to have jobs? To answer this question, it is necessary to define the adjective “good” and distinguish this term from “legal”. Another prerequisite is the motivation or the driving force of “having jobs”. That is, whether the teenagers are forced to work? Still another, the nature of job that students do plays roles in the discussion.

  It might be good that teenagers do some jobs while they are still students. By saying “good”, I mean the jobs are constructive to the development of student, including their physical development and academic performance. In this sense, to be good, a job that a teenager has had must not be forced by poverty, nor by other forces. For instance, a teenager works on campus as library assistant. In this case, the job might be good in that it not only helps the student to understand how the library works but also earns him or her a sum of money which he or she can use to buy books or a ticker of a concert. However, even if a job is good, the feature of the job must be legal and compatible to the received religion, moral, and ethics.

  A job that a teenager is forced to do might be not good at all, or even illegal in case of child labor. If a teenager is forced to do some commercial jobs such as mining, building, or manufacturing which typically are taken by adults, the jobs are destructive. One reason is that these jobs prevent the teenagers from learning in (at) schools. Another reason is that these forced jobs constitute horrible psychological pressure on the young students. Many child labor cases prevailing in the less developed countries such as those in the middle east of Africa are clearly illegal but they do exist. The reasons are rather sophisticated, but the main is family poverty and lack of schools. The UN attempts to halve the poverty and halt the illiterate. Nevertheless the task is rather demanding.

  To conclude, that teenagers have some jobs while they are still students is a rather multidimensional social issue which refuses any oversimplified assertion, and which calls (for) the teachers, parents, and the society as a whole to pay heed to it.

  背景材料

  Child labor is the employment of children of less than a legally specified age. In Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand, children under age 15 rarely work except in commercial agriculture, because of the effective enforcement of laws passed in the first half of the 20th century. In the United States, for example, the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 set the minimum age at 14 for employment outside of school hours in nonmanufacturing jobs, at 16 for employment during school hours in interstate commerce, and at 18 for occupations deemed hazardous.

  Child labour is far more prevalent in developing countries, where millions of children—some as young as seven—still toil in quarries, mines, factories, fields, and service enterprises. They make up more than 10 percent of the labour force in some countries in the Middle East and from 2 to 10 percent in much of Latin America and some parts of Asia. Few, if any, laws govern their employment or the conditions under which work is performed. Restrictive legislation is rendered impractical by family poverty and lack of schools.

  The movement to regulate child labour began in Great Britain at the close of the 18th century, when the rapid development of large-scale manufacturing made possible the exploitation of young children in mining and industrial work. The first law, in 1802, which was aimed at controlling the apprenticeship of pauper children to cotton-mill owners, was ineffective because it did not provide for enforcement. In 1833 the Factory Act did provide a system of factory inspection.

  Organized international efforts to regulate child labour began with the first International Labour Conference in Berlin in 1890. Although agreement on standards was not reached at that time, similar conferences and other international moves followed. In 1900 the International Association for Labour Legislation was established at Basel, Switz., to promote child labour provisions as part of other international labour legislation. A report published by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) of the United Nations in 1960 on law and practice among more than 70 member nations showed serious failures to protect young workers in nonindustrial jobs, including agriculture and handicrafts. One of the ILO's current goals is to identify and resolve the “worst forms” of child labour; these are defined as any form of labour that negatively impacts a child's normal development. In 1992 the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) was created as a new department of the ILO. Through programs it operates around the world, IPEC seeks the removal of children from hazardous working conditions and the ultimate elimination of child labour.

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